On this day in 1982, The National War Memorial in Ottawa is rededicated to include dates of the Second World War and Korean War.
“The Royal Canadian Legion requested in 1980 that the Crown rededicate the National War Memorial so as to formally recognise the sacrifices of those who had fought in the Second World and Korean Wars. Wishing to not repeat the confusion and problems around the national shrine of remembrance, the then Minister of Veterans Affairs, Dan MacDonald, almost immediately agreed to the proposal. The monument was re-dedicated on 29 May 1982 by Governor General Edward Schreyer, with the dates 1939-1945 and 1950-1953 added. the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was added before the monument in 2000 and dedicated by Governor General Adrienne Clarkson on 28 May of that year.”
‘We have an epidemic on our hands that we’re not discussing’
“It’s still a stigma. … It’s not something that is just a day to day conversation, but that’s what I’m hoping to do. I’m hoping this video can make it a day to day conversation.”
MacKenzie said he’s lost eight comrades to suicide or substance abuse as a result of PTSD and wants the campaign to raise awareness of how severe suicide and mental health issues are among Canada’s veterans.
“I’m just tired of seeing veterans die suddenly and us left to question and find out why,” MacKenzie said. “We have an epidemic on our hands that we’re not discussing and if we’re not going to talk about it there’s going to be no way of finding a solution.””
On this day in 1958, Signal Hill declared the first National Historic Park in Newfoundland. St. John’s, Newfoundland
“The final battle of the Seven Years’ War in North America was fought in 1762 at the Battle of Signal Hill, in which the French surrendered St. John’s to a British force under the command of Lt. Colonel William Amherst. Lt. Colonel Amherst renamed what was then known as “The Lookout” as “Signal Hill,” because of the signalling that took place upon its summit from its flag mast. Flag communication between land and sea would take place there from the 17th century until 1960.
During the 19th century, Signal Hill was manned specifically during the Napoleonic Wars and the American Civil War. A second construction period in Signal Hill’s history saw the construction of the Queen’s Battery Barracks, which has been completely restored to the period of 1862.
Construction on Cabot Tower began in 1897 to commemorate both Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee in 1897 and the 400th anniversary of John Cabot’s landfall which took place in 1497. The building was declared officially open in 1900. The practical uses of the building were flag mast signalling and a Marconi wireless station which has since been moved to St. John’s International Airport.
On 12 December 1901, the first transatlantic wireless transmission was received here by Guglielmo Marconi in an abandoned fever and diphtheria hospital, which has since been destroyed by fire. The transmission, in Morse code, originated from his Poldhu Wireless Station, Cornwall, UK.”
On this day in 1756, England declares war on France to start the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), the European counterpart to the French and Indian War (1754-1763); fighting had been going on in North America for two years, but did not go well for England until William Pitt came to power in 1756 and sent troop reinforcements.
” The Seven Years War (1756–63) was the first global war, fought in Europe, India, and America, and at sea. In North America, imperial rivals Britain and France struggled for supremacy. Early in the war, the French (aided by Canadian militia and Aboriginal allies) defeated several British attacks and captured a number of British forts. In 1758, the tide turned when the British captured Louisbourg, followed by Québec City in 1759 and Montréal in 1760. With the Treaty of Paris of 1763, France formally ceded Canada to the British. The Seven Years’ War, therefore, laid the bicultural foundations of modern Canada.
Reasons and Aims
The Seven Years War pitted the alliance of Britain, Prussia and Hanover against the alliance of France, Austria, Sweden, Saxony, Russia, and eventually Spain. The war was driven by the commercial and imperial rivalry between Britain and France, and by the antagonism between Prussia (allied to Britain) and Austria (allied to France). In Europe, Britain sent troops to help its ally, Prussia, which was surrounded by its enemies. However, the main British war aim was to destroy France as a commercial rival, and they, therefore, focused on attacking the French navy and colonies overseas. France, which was heavily committed to fighting on the European continent, had few resources to spare for its colonies. France found itself committed to fighting in Europe to defend Austria, which could do nothing to aid France overseas.
Hostilities in North America, 1754–55
Hostilities began in 1754 in the Ohio Valley, which both the French and British had claimed. In 1753, the French built fortifications in the area to strengthen their claim. In response, the governor of Virginia (then a British colony) sent militia colonel George Washington to the Ohio frontier. Washington ambushed a small French detachment but was subsequently defeated by a larger French force.
Even though the war had not yet been officially declared, the British began planning an assault against the French in America, ordering Major-General Edward Braddock and two regular regiments to America in 1755. Other regiments would be raised in the colonies, and a four-pronged attack would be launched against Niagara, Fort Beauséjour on the border of Nova Scotia, Fort Duquesne on the Ohio River, and Fort Saint-Frédéric [Crown Point] on Lake Champlain (in what is now New York state).
On learning of these movements, the French ordered six battalions under Baron Armand Dieskau to reinforce Louisbourg and Canada. Vice-Admiral Edward Boscawen and a squadron of the British navy tried to intercept and capture the French convoy but captured only two ships. The British had even less success on land. The army advancing on Lake Champlain fought the French near Lake George, capturing Dieskau, but decided to abandon the campaign against Fort Saint-Frédéric; instead, they consolidated their position at the opposite side of the lake, where they built Fort William Henry. The proposed assault on Niagara collapsed due to supply problems and heavy desertion, and Braddock’s army was destroyed by a small detachment of French soldiers and Aboriginal warriors. However, the British had some success in Acadia, capturing Fort Beauséjour with its small garrison in 1755. The Acadian settlers of the entire region were subsequently rounded up by the New England forces and deported (see History of Acadia). “
On this day in 1945, “Canadian troops move into Amsterdam on VE-Day, as the unconditional surrender of Germany, signed at Rheims on May 7, is ratified at Berlin; World War II ends in Europe with the unconditional surrender of German land, sea and air forces. Amsterdam, Netherlands (CBC Archives)”
Victory in Europe (VE-Day) Remembered
“Victory in Europe, on 8 May 1945, was a great celebration — for those who had suffered through Nazi occupation, and those who had liberated them.
Victory in Europe, on 8 May 1945, was a great celebration — for those who had suffered through Nazi occupation, and those who had liberated them. For Canadians, the VE-Day anniversary offers a chance to remember this country’s huge contribution and sacrifice in the Second World War.
Canadian forces played a decisive part in virtually every phase of the war against Nazi Germany and Italy, its fascist ally. The first step was to secure merchant shipping in the Atlantic against the German submarine fleet. The cargoes carried by the merchant ships were essential to Britain’s survival and to build up the armed strength needed to strike back at the enemy. Canadian warships provided nearly half of the escorts for merchant ship convoys, and Canadian aircraft as much as a third of the vital air protection for the precious merchant ships. Canadian warships and aircraft destroyed 50 enemy submarines.
Canadian aircrew made up nearly a quarter of the strength of the combat commands of Britain’s Royal Air Force. These members of the Royal Canadian Air Force, half of them in 47 Canadian squadrons and half serving in a wide range of British units, were prominent in all aspects of air warfare, and especially in the bombing offensive that destroyed Germany’s cities.
Canadian Army formations stood on guard in Britain in 1940–41, when Britain’s army was shattered and a German invasion was a real possibility. From 1943 until early 1945, Canadian Army formations played a major part in the invasion of Italy and the liberation of that country from the strong German occupying forces.
The war at sea, the war in the air and the war in Italy were all preliminaries to the invasion of German occupied France, at Normandy on 6 June 1944. The 3rd Canadian Infantry Division (see Juno Beach) was one of five Allied assault divisions that landed that day, the greatest amphibious invasion in history. A hundred Canadian warships carried troops, protected the invasion fleet, and provided gunfire support to the troops ashore. Hundreds of Canadian bombers and fighters hunted German submarines at sea and battered the German defences on land. In the fearsome battles of Normandy that continued until late August 1944 and resulted in the death, injury or surrender of 400,000 German troops, the First Canadian Army faced some of the fiercest opposition and suffered some of the heaviest losses of the Allied armies.
In October and November 1944, the Canadians again endured unrelenting, bitter combat, this time in appalling conditions of wet and cold. They smashed the heavily fortified German defences on the River Scheldt and thereby opened the great Belgian port of Antwerp that was the key to supplying the vast Allied liberation armies. This important Canadian victory was critical to ensure that the final Allied offensives went forward in full strength and on time in early 1945. The Canadians were a spearhead in those offensives, pushing in from February to April 1945 across fortified rivers in the Netherlands and western Germany, against an enemy that showed little sign of weakening until the very last days.”